The financial statements are prepared on a going concern basis and the Board is satisfied that the Group will continue as a going concern for the foreseeable future.
Most of the Agency's funding is in the form of short term Government Guaranteed Floating Rate Notes ("the Notes"). The outstanding balance of these Notes at 31 December 2013 is €34,618m.
The Notes in issue are redeemable at the option of the holder in cash or by the issuance of new notes. Consequently, a requirement to redeem some or all of the Notes for cash could leave the Agency in a position where it would have to call on the Government to fund such cash redemption, if sufficient own resources were not available.
The Agency was established under statute with a specific statutory mandate. In its consideration of whether accounting on a going concern basis is appropriate, the Board has had regard to the purposes of the Act as set out therein. These are, inter alia, to address a serious threat to the economy and the stability of credit institutions in the State generally and the need for the maintenance and stabilisation of the financial system in the State. The Board believes it is reasonable to assume that, given the purpose of the legislation, the State will take appropriate steps to ensure that the Agency is put in a position to discharge its mandate.
The first statutory assessment of NAMA's progress in achieving its overall objectives is to be carried out by the Minister as soon as may be after 31 December 2012. In accordance with Section 227 of the Act, following the assessment by the Minister, he shall decide whether the continuation of NAMA is necessary having regard to the purposes of the Act. The Section 227 assessment by the Minister commenced in February 2014.
Under Section 226 of the Act, the Comptroller and Auditor General is required to assess and present a report to the Minister on his assessment of the extent to which NAMA has made progress in achieving its overall objectives. This assessment has been finalised.
The Agency's activities are subject to risk factors including credit, liquidity, market, and operational risk. The Board has reviewed these risk factors and all relevant information to assess the Agency's ability to continue as a going concern. The Board and its Committees review key aspects of the Agency's activities on an ongoing basis and review, whenever appropriate, the critical assumptions underpinning its long-term strategies.
At the reporting date NAMA had equity and reserves of €810m (2012: €412m). Total cash and liquid assets at the reporting date was €4,400m (2012: €3,644m).
The Notes issued relating to the original loan acquisitions from Participating Institutions were €22,690m (2012: €25,440m) at the reporting date and are all held by Credit Institutions ('NALML portfolio'). The Notes issued to acquire the facility deed and floating charge over the IBRC assets, following its liquidation in February 2013, were €11,928m at the reporting date and are held by the Central Bank of Ireland ('NARL portfolio').
The NALML portfolio note holders are all Credit Institutions covered by the Credit Institutions (Eligible Liabilities Guarantee Scheme) 2009 and are subject to direction from the Minister for Finance and the Notes are guaranteed by the Government. Given these circumstances, the Board believes that its assumption that, on the maturity of the Notes, NAMA will be able to settle its liability with new Notes, issued on similar terms, is a reasonable one. All notes in issue that matured on 1 March 2014 were settled by issuing new Notes with a maturity of 3 March 2015.
The Central Bank of Ireland are the holders of €11,928m at the reporting date of Government Guaranteed Senior Notes, issued by the Group, following the liquidation of IBRC and the assignment of the loan facility deed and floating charge to NAMA. In April 2014, the joint Special Liquidators concluded the loan sales process and the majority of the IBRC loan portfolio has been sold to third parties. It is expected that the NAMA senior debt issued in respect of the NARL portfolio (€11,928m at the reporting date) will be repaid in full.
The Group has available cash, cash equivalents and liquid assets at 31 December 2013 of €4.4bn (2012: €3.6bn) and current liabilities (other than senior debt) of €0.8bn (2012: €1.4bn), therefore the Board is satisfied that it can meet its current liabilities as they fall due for the foreseeable future. The Group has repaid all loans and borrowings to the Minister and has no other external borrowings.
On this basis, the Board is satisfied that the Agency will have access to adequate resources to continue its operations for the foreseeable future and that it is appropriate to prepare the financial statements on a going concern basis.
The Group's consolidated and Agency financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2013 have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as adopted by the European Union, the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) interpretations and the NAMA Act 2009.
The consolidated and Agency financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, except for derivative financial instruments, equity instruments and available for sale assets, which have been measured at fair value.
The consolidated and Agency financial statements are presented in euro (€), which is the Group's functional and presentational currency. The figures shown in the consolidated financial statements are stated in € thousands.
The consolidated statement of cash flows shows the changes in cash and cash equivalents arising during the year from operating activities, investing activities and financing activities. The cash flows from operating activities are determined using the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross payments are disclosed.
Cash flows from investing and financing activities are reported on a gross basis. The Group's assignment of the cash flows to operating, investing and financing categories depends on the Group's business model (management approach).
In accordance with IAS 1, assets and liabilities are presented in order of liquidity.
The following standards and interpretations have been issued and are expected to be relevant to the Group.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments - Classification and Measurement. This standard will be applicable for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2015 subject to EU endorsement. This standard is still being developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The first phase of classification and measurement is complete and will have an impact on the measurement of financial assets and liabilities of the Group, specifically on debt securities in issue which, depending on certain criteria may be measured at fair value as opposed to the current measurement of amortised cost. Phases 2 and 3 of the project deal with impairment methodology and hedge accounting and are expected to impact the Group in these areas, however the exact impact cannot yet be determined until the final methodology is issued by the IASB. The revised standard has not yet been EU endorsed and therefore is not early adopted by the Group.
Amendments to IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures: The IASB published Mandatory Effective Date and Transition Disclosures (Amendments to IFRS 9 and IFRS 7), to amend the effective date of IFRS 9 to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2015 and to modify the relief from restating prior periods and the associated disclosures in IFRS 7. These amendments are required to be applied when IFRS 9 is first adopted. The provision of modified disclosures on transition from IAS 39 to IFRS 9 on the basis of the entity's date of adoption replaces the entities original requirement to restate comparative financial statements. An entity can choose to restate prior periods. An entity that adopts IFRS 9 for reporting periods beginning after 1 January 2013 is not required to restate prior periods but is required to provide the modified disclosures.
This standard will have an impact on the current disclosure requirements of the Group only when IFRS 9 is adopted. This amendment has not yet been EU endorsed and therefore is not early adopted by the Group.
IAS 1 Revised – Presentation of items in Other Comprehensive Income: IAS 1 was effective from 1 July 2012. The revisions require that items recognised in other comprehensive income are split into those that may be reclassified to profit or loss and those that are not reclassified. This amendment has no impact on the Group as all items currently classified in other comprehensive income may be reclassified to the income statement.
IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements: IFRS 10 replaces the parts of IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements that deal with consolidated financial statements and SIC 12 Consolidation – Special Purpose Entities.
This standard which is effective from 1 January 2013 replaces the consolidation guidance in IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements and SIC-12 Consolidation – Special Purpose Entities. The Standard identifies the principles of control, determines how to identify whether an investor controls an investee and therefore must consolidate the investee, and sets out the principles for the preparation of consolidated financial statements.
The Standard introduces a single consolidation model for all entities based on control, irrespective of the nature of the investee (i.e. whether an entity is controlled through voting rights of investors or through other contractual arrangements as is common in 'special purpose entities').
The adoption of this standard had no impact on the financial position of the Group. Further information about NAMA's subsidiaries is set out in Note 38 to the Financial Statements.
IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements: IFRS 11 replaces IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures. IFRS 11 deals with how a joint arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control should be classified and accounted for. There are two types of joint arrangements – joint operations and joint ventures. The classification of joint arrangements under IFRS 11 is determined based on the rights and obligations of parties to the joint arrangements by considering the structure, the legal form of the arrangement and other relevant facts. Proportionate consolidation measurement for joint ventures is no longer allowed, joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method.
The Group currently has no participation in joint venture arrangements and therefore the adoption of this standard did not have any impact on the financial position of the Group.
IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities: This standard which is effective from 1 January 2013 sets out the required disclosures for entities reporting under the two new standards, IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements and IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements; it also replaces the disclosure requirements in IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures. The required disclosures aim to provide information to enable users to evaluate the nature of, and risks associated with, an entity's interests in other entities and the effects of those interests on the entity's financial position, financial performance and cash flows. This basic principle is further supported by more detailed disclosure objectives and requirements. The Group has no associates, joint ventures or investments in unstructured entities at the reporting date that result in additional disclosures. Additional disclosures only relate to NAMA subsidiaries as disclosed in Note 38 to the Financial Statements.
IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements (revised 2011): The revised standard is effective from 1 January 2013. The requirements relating to separate financial statements are unchanged and are included in the revised IAS 27. The other sections of IAS 27 are replaced by IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements. IAS 27 is renamed 'Separate Financial Statements' and is now a standard dealing solely with separate financial statements. The existing guidance and disclosure requirements for separate financial statements are unchanged. The adoption of this standard had no impact on the financial position of the Group.
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement: This standard which is effective from 1 January 2013 establishes a single source of guidance for fair value measurements under IFRSs. IFRS 13 defines fair value, provides guidance on its determination and introduces consistent requirements for disclosures on fair value measurements. The standard requires entities to disclose information about the valuation techniques and inputs used to measure fair value, as well as information about the uncertainty inherent in fair value measurements. This information is required for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. The adoption of this standard has resulted in additional disclosures. See accounting policy 2.27.
The consolidated financial statements of the Group comprise the financial statements of the parent entity, NAMA and all its subsidiaries. The financial statements of the subsidiaries used to prepare the consolidated financial statements were prepared as of the same reporting date as that of the parent.
The Group consolidates all entities where it directly or indirectly holds the majority of the voting rights and where it determines their financial and business policies and is able to exercise control over them in order to benefit from their activities.
Investments in subsidiaries are accounted for at cost less impairment. Accounting policies of the subsidiaries are consistent with the Group's accounting policies.
Inter-company transactions and balances and gains on transactions between group companies are eliminated. Intergroup losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of impairment of the asset transferred.
Details of subsidiaries are provided in Note 38.
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates ('the functional currency').
The consolidated financial statements are presented in euro, which is the Group's presentation and functional currency.
Transactions denominated, or that require settlement, in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions.
Monetary items denominated in foreign currency are translated using the closing rate as at the reporting date. Non-monetary items measured at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate as at the date of initial recognition.
Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of foreign currency transactions and from the translation at year end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the consolidated income statement.
All foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in foreign exchange gains and losses as a separate line item in the consolidated income statement.
The Group classifies its financial assets into the following IAS 39 categories:
(a) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss;
(b) Loans and receivables and;
(c) Available for sale financial assets
Available for sale financial assets are non-derivatives that are either designated as available for sale or are not classified as loans and receivables, held-to-maturity investments or financial assets at fair value through profit or loss. Available for sale financial assets are those intended to be held for an indefinite period of time, which may be sold in response to needs for liquidity or changes in interest rates or exchange rates.
The Group determines the classification of its financial instruments at initial recognition.
This category of assets comprises derivatives other than derivatives that are designated and are effective as hedging instruments and equity instruments.
These assets are recognised initially at fair value and transaction costs are taken directly to the consolidated income statement. Interest income and expense arising on these assets are included in interest income and interest expense in the consolidated income statement. Fair value gains and losses on these financial assets are included in gains and losses on derivative financial instruments in the consolidated income statement or as part of foreign exchange gains and losses where they relate to currency derivatives.
During the year NAMA acquired certain equity instruments in other entities.
An equity instrument is any contract that results in a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. An equity instrument has no contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset.
Equity instruments are initially measured at fair value. Equity instruments are subsequently measured at fair value unless the fair value cannot be reliably measured, in which case the equity instrument is measured at cost. The fair value of equity instruments is measured based on the net asset value of the entity at the reporting date. Changes in fair value are recognised in profit or loss.
Equity instruments are separately disclosed in the Statement of Financial Position.
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. Loans acquired by the Group are treated as loans and receivables because the original contracts provided for payments that were fixed or determinable. The Group has classified the loan assets it acquired from Participating Institutions as loans and receivables.
Loans and receivables are initially recognised at fair value plus transaction costs. Loan assets acquired by the Group from Participating Institutions, as provided for in the Act, are treated as having a fair value at initial recognition equal to the acquisition price paid for the asset, taking into account any cash flow movements in the loan balance between the valuation date and transfer date.
Loans and receivables are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method (see accounting policy 2.9.
Loans and receivables are classified as follows;
Land and development loans include loans on land which have been purchased for the purpose of development, and loans secured on partly developed land.
Investment property loans are loans secured on any property purchased with the primary intention of earning the total return, i.e. income and/or capital appreciation, over the life of the interest acquired. This would include loans secured on completed residential property developments that are classified as investment property loans.
Available for sale financial assets are initially recognised at fair value plus transaction costs. They are subsequently held at fair value. Interest income calculated using the EIR method is recognised in profit or loss. Other changes in the carrying amount of available for sale financial assets are recognised in other comprehensive income in the available for sale reserve. When the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in the available for sale reserve is reclassified to profit or loss.
The Group carries all financial liabilities at amortised cost, with the exception of derivative financial instruments, which are measured at fair value. Further information on derivative liabilities is included in accounting policy 2.15.
Financial assets are derecognised when the contractual rights to receive the cash flows from these assets have ceased to exist or the assets have been transferred and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the assets have also been transferred. Financial liabilities are derecognised when they have been redeemed or otherwise extinguished.
Interest income and expense for all interest-bearing financial instruments is recognised as interest income and interest expense in the income statement using the EIR method.
The EIR method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or interest expense over the relevant period. The EIR is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or financial liability.
When calculating the EIR of loans and receivables on the original NAMA portfolio, the Group estimated cash flows using the mandated Long Term Economic Value (LTEV) methodology but did not consider future credit losses beyond any already recognised in the acquisition price of loans. The calculation includes transaction costs and all fees paid or received between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the EIR.
Where loan cash flows cannot be reliably estimated on initial recognition (generally when the due diligence process has not yet completed), interest income is recognised on a contractual interest receipts basis until the cash flows can be estimated, at which time interest income will be recognised using the EIR method. All loans and receivables acquired were recognised using the EIR method by the reporting date.
The EIR on the IBRC loan facility deed acquired is calculated with reference to the ECB Marginal Lending Facility Rate plus a fixed margin of 1%.
When a loan and receivable is impaired, the Group reduces the carrying amount to its estimated recoverable amount (being the estimated future cash flows discounted at the original EIR) and continues unwinding the remaining discount.
Once a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets) has been written down as a result of an impairment loss, interest income is recognised using the original rate of interest used to discount the future cash flows for the purpose of measuring the impairment loss. Interest income on impaired loans is only recognised on the unimpaired amount of the loan balance using the original EIR.
Fee income that is an integral part of calculating the EIR or in originating a loan is recognised as part of EIR as described in accounting policy 2.9. Fees earned by the Group that are not part of EIR are recognised immediately in profit or loss as fee income.
NAMA debtors disposed of certain loan/property assets to third parties during the year. Profits and losses on the disposal of loans/property are calculated as the difference between the carrying value of the loans/property and the contractual sales price at the date of sale. The contractual sales price includes any deferred consideration where NAMA has the contractual right to receive any deferred cash flow in accordance with IAS 32. Profits and losses on the disposal of loans/property are recognised in the income statement when the transaction occurs. Profit on disposal of loans is not recognised when the overall debtor connection is impaired in accordance with latest available impairment assessment data.
Surplus income is calculated as the excess cash recovered on a total debtor connection over the total loan carrying value and is recognised in the income statement:
The Group assesses, at the end of each reporting period, whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets, measured at amortised cost, is impaired.
The Group first assesses whether objective evidence of impairment exists individually for financial assets that are individually significant, or collectively for financial assets that are not individually significant. The individually significant assessment is completed in respect of the total portfolio of borrowings of each individually significant debtor and connection, rather than on an individual loan basis.
The vast majority of loans and receivables acquired had already incurred credit losses, which were reflected in the valuation of loans and receivables by NAMA.
Objective evidence that an asset or portfolio of assets is impaired after acquisition by NAMA includes:
For the purpose of the individually significant assessment, the amount of the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the asset's carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred), discounted at the financial asset's original EIR. This is assessed at a total debtor connection level, which is the unit of account applied by NAMA. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through use of an allowance account. The amount of the impairment loss is recognised in the consolidated income statement.
Loans which are not subject to individually significant assessment are grouped collectively for the purposes of performing an impairment assessment.
If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed by adjusting the allowance account. The amount of the reversal is recognised in the consolidated income statement.
Where there is no further prospect of recovery of the carrying value of a loan, or a portion thereof, the amount that is not recoverable is written off against the related allowance for debtor impairment. Such financial assets are written off after all the necessary procedures have been completed and the amount of the loss has been determined.
The carrying amount of the Group's non-financial assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists then the asset's recoverable amount is estimated. The recoverable amount of an asset is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a discount rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. An impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss if the carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount.
Cash comprises cash on hand, demand deposits and exchequer notes.
Cash equivalents are short term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Derivatives, such as interest rate swaps, cross-currency swaps and foreign exchange swaps are used for hedging purposes as part of the Group's risk management strategy. In addition, the Group acquired, at fair value, certain derivatives associated with the loans acquired from the Participating Institutions. The Group does not enter into derivatives for proprietary trading purposes.
The Group's policy is to hedge its foreign currency exposure through the use of currency derivatives. Interest rate risk on debt issued by the Group is hedged using interest rate swaps. Interest rate swaps acquired from the Participating Institutions are hedged by means of offsetting interest rate swaps.
Derivatives are accounted for either at fair value through profit or loss or, where they are designated as hedging instruments, using the hedge accounting provisions of IAS 39.
Derivatives at fair value through profit or loss are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into or acquired and are subsequently re-measured at fair value.
The fair value of derivatives is determined using a mark to market valuation technique based on independent valuations obtained using observable market inputs such as Euribor and Libor yield curves, par interest and foreign exchange rates.
The assumptions involved in these valuation techniques include the likelihood and expected timing of future cash flows of the instrument. These cash flows are generally governed by the terms of the instrument, although management judgement is required when the ability of the counterparty to service the instrument in accordance with the contractual terms is in doubt.
Derivatives are carried as assets when fair value is positive and as liabilities when fair value is negative.
Fair value gains or losses on derivatives (other than currency derivatives) are recognised in the income statement. However where they are designated as hedging instruments, the treatment of the fair value gains and losses depends on the nature of the hedging relationship.
Gains and losses on currency swaps are recognised in profit or loss as part of foreign exchange gains and losses.
The Group designates certain derivatives as hedges of highly probable future cash flows, attributable to a recognised asset or liability, or a forecasted transaction (cash flow hedges).
At the inception of the hedge relationship, the Group documents the relationship between hedged items and hedging instruments, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The Group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in cash flows of hedged items.
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges are recognised in other comprehensive income and included in the cash flow hedge reserve, which is included in equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the consolidated income statement.
Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified to the income statement in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss. Amounts reclassified to profit or loss from equity are included in net interest income.
When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised in the income statement when the forecast transaction occurs. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in equity is immediately reclassified to the income statement.
Trading properties are held for resale and are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs are determined on the basis of specific identification of individual costs relating to each asset. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for properties less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.
Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income, in which case it is recognised in other comprehensive income.
Current income tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Current income tax payable on profits, based on the applicable tax law in each jurisdiction, is recognised as an expense in the period in which the profits arise.
The tax effects of current income tax losses available for carry forward are recognised as an asset when it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which these losses are utilised.
The Group does not offset current income tax assets and liabilities.
Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the date of the statement of financial position and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realised or the deferred income tax liability is settled.
Deferred income tax assets are recognised when it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which these temporary differences can be utilised.
Deferred income tax related to cash flow hedges and available for sale reserve movements is recognised in other comprehensive income and subsequently in the consolidated income statement together with the deferred gain or loss.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and when the deferred income tax assets and liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the same taxable entity or different taxable entities where there is an intention to settle the balances on a net basis.
Provisions for legal claims are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events; it is more likely than not that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation; and the amount can be reliably estimated. The Group recognises no provisions for future operating losses.
Contingent liabilities are not recognised by the Group but are disclosed unless the probability of their occurrence is remote.
Contingent assets are not recognised by the Group but are disclosed where an inflow of economic benefits is probable. If the realisation of income becomes virtually certain then the related asset is recognised.
Contingent assets and liabilities are assessed continually to ensure that they are appropriately reflected in the financial statements.
The Participating Institutions fund overdraft accounts and collect cash repayments on overdraft accounts on NAMA's behalf. The amounts funded by Participating Institutions are recognised in the statement of financial position as amounts due to Participating Institutions and the amounts collected are recognised as amounts due from Participating Institutions. The net amount due to / from Participating Institutions is applied against the outstanding loans and receivables balance.
The Agency incurred costs for the fit-out of leased office space. Costs incurred are capitalised in the statement of financial position as property, plant and equipment in accordance with IAS 16. The recognised asset is depreciated on a straight line basis over 10 years. A full year's depreciation is recognised in the year the asset is capitalised.
Financial guarantee contracts are contracts that require the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due, in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Such financial guarantees are given to banks, financial institutions and other bodies on behalf of customers to secure loans, overdrafts and other banking facilities.
Financial guarantees are initially recognised in the financial statements at fair value on the date the guarantee was acquired. Subsequent to initial recognition, the Group's liabilities under such guarantees are measured at the higher of the initial amount, less amortisation of fees recognised in accordance with IAS 18 and the best estimate of the amount required to settle the guarantee. These estimates are determined based on experience of similar transactions and history of past losses, supplemented by the judgement of management. The fee income earned is recognised on a straight-line basis over the life of the guarantee. Any increase in the liability relating to guarantees is reported in the consolidated income statement within other operating expenses.
Debt and equity instruments are classified as either liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual terms of the instruments. Instruments which do not carry a contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity are classified as equity and are presented in equity. The coupon payments on these instruments are recognised directly in equity. The subordinated bonds issued by the Group contain a discretionary coupon and have no obligation to deliver cash, and are therefore classified as equity instruments.
Senior debt securities issued by the Group are classified as debt instruments as the securities carry a fixed coupon based on Euribor and the coupon payment is non-discretionary.
Debt securities in issue are initially measured at fair value less transaction costs and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method.
Dividends on ordinary shares are recognised in equity in the year in which they are approved by the Company's shareholders. Dividends for the period that are declared after the date of the consolidated statement of financial position are dealt with in Note 41, Events after the reporting date.
This comprises the subordinated bonds that meet the definition of an equity instrument. Coupon payments on these instruments are reflected directly in equity when they are declared.
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the NAMA CEO who allocates resources to and assesses the performance of the operating segments of NAMA.
Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries comprise ordinary share capital and/or other equity in subsidiaries not attributable directly or indirectly to the parent entity.
Profits which may arise in any year may be allocated to the non-controlling interest in accordance with the maximum investment return which may be paid to the external investors. Losses arising in any period are allocated to the non-controlling interest only up to the value of the non-controlling interest in the Group, as NAMA takes substantially all the economic benefits and risks of the Group.
The Group is required to post cash collateral with the NTMA under a collateral posting agreement (CPA) agreed between the NTMA and NAMA. The NTMA is the counterparty to all NAMA derivatives (other than those acquired from borrowers). The NTMA require cash to be placed with it as collateral to reduce the exposure it has to NAMA with regard to its derivative positions. The amount of collateral required depends on an assessment of the credit risk by the NTMA.
Cash placed as collateral is recognised in the statement of financial position. Any interest payable or receivable arising on the amount placed as collateral is recorded in interest expense or interest income respectively.
The fair value of a financial instrument is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date in the principal, or in its absence, the most advantageous market to which the Group has access at that date.
Financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value and, with the exception of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, the initial carrying amount is adjusted for direct and incremental transaction costs. In the normal course of business, the fair value on initial recognition is the transaction price (fair value of consideration given or received).
If the Group determines that the fair value at initial recognition differs from the transaction price and the fair value is determined by a quoted price in an active market for the same financial instrument, or by a valuation technique which uses only observable market inputs, the difference between the fair value at initial recognition and the transaction price is recognised as a gain or loss.
If the fair value is calculated by a valuation technique that features significant market inputs that are not observable, the difference between the fair value at initial recognition and the transaction price is deferred. Subsequently, the difference is recognised in the income statement on an appropriate basis over the life of the financial instrument, but no later than when the valuation is supported by wholly observable inputs; the transaction matures; or is closed out.
Subsequent to initial recognition, fair values are determined using valuation techniques. These valuation techniques maximise the use of relevant observable inputs and minimise the use of unobservable inputs. The valuation techniques used incorporate the factors that market participants would take into account in pricing a transaction. Valuation techniques include the use of recent orderly transactions between market participants, reference to other similar instruments, option pricing models, discounted cash flow analysis and other valuation techniques commonly used by market participants.
In the absence of quoted market prices, and in the case of over-the-counter derivatives, fair value is calculated using valuation techniques. Fair value may be estimated using quoted market prices for similar instruments, adjusted for differences between the quoted instrument and the instrument being valued. Where the fair value is calculated using discounted cash flow analysis, the methodology is to use, to the extent possible, market data that is either directly observable or is implied from instrument prices, such as interest rate yield curves, equities and commodities prices, credit spreads, option volatilities and currency rates.
The valuation methodology is to calculate the expected cash flows under the terms of each specific contract and then discount these values back to a present value. The assumptions involved in these valuation techniques include:
All adjustments in the calculation of the present value of future cash flows are based on factors market participants would take into account in pricing the financial instrument.
Certain financial instruments (both assets and liabilities) may be valued on the basis of valuation techniques that feature one or more significant market inputs that are not observable. When applying a valuation technique with unobservable data, estimates are made to reflect uncertainties in fair values resulting from a lack of market data. For these instruments, the fair value measurement is less reliable. Inputs into valuations based on non-observable data are inherently uncertain because there is little or no current market data available from which to determine the price at which an orderly transaction between market participants would occur under current market conditions.
The calculation of fair value for any financial instrument may require adjustment of the valuation technique output to reflect the cost of credit risk, if market participants would include one, where these are not embedded in underlying valuation techniques.
A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor conveys to the lessee in return for a payment or series of payments the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership. The leased asset is recognised on the statement of financial position of the lessor. Properties acquired by NARPSL for the purposes of social housing are recognised as inventories in accordance with IAS 2. Rental income arising from operating leases on inventory property is accounted for on a straight line basis over the lease term.